EEE - Economy, Energy, Environment

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bigvlada
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Nov 26, 2008 8:43 am

Ovo je jedan pojednostavljen pogled na ekonomiju i njenu neraskidivu vezu sa energijom i prirodnom okolinom.
Mogu da idu i članci o energetskoj efikasnosti. Bitnoje da shvatimo da su ove tri stvari neraskidivo vezane i da se mogu rešavati samo zajedno. Zamislite vagu sa tri tasa umesto dva, ako se koncentrišemo samo na jednu komponentu, ostale će ispaštati.

http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse


Chapter 1: Three Beliefs (Time: 1:46)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-1-three-beliefs
Chapter 2: The Three "E"s (Time: 1:38)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-2-three-es
Chapter 3: Exponential Growth (Time: 6:20)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-3-exponential-growth
Chapter 4: Compounding is the Problem (Time: 3:06)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-4-compounding-problem
Chapter 5: Growth vs. Prosperity (Time: 3:40)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-5-growth-vs-prosperity
Chapter 6: What is Money? (Time: 5:55)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-6-what-money
Chapter 7: Money Creation (Time: 4:19)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-7-money-creation
Chapter 8: The Fed - Money Creation (Time: 7:13)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-8-fed-money-creation
Chapter 9: A Brief History of US Money (Time: 7:14)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-9-brief-history-us-money
Chapter 10: Inflation (Time: 11:48)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-10-inflation
Chapter 11: How Much Is A Trillion? (Time: 3:28)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-11-how-much-trillion
Chapter 12: Debt (Time: 12:32)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-12-debt
Chapter 13: A National Failure To Save (Time: 12:06)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-13-national-failure-save
Chapter 14: Assets & Demographics (Time: 13:41)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-14-assets-demographics
Chapter 15: Bubbles (Time: 14:10)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-15-bubbles
Chapter 16: Fuzzy Numbers (Time: 15:52)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-16-fuzzy-numbers
Chapter 17: PART A: Peak Oil (Time: 17:52)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-17a-peak-oil
Chapter 17: PART B: Energy Budgeting (Time: 12:15)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-17b-energy-budgeting
Chapter 17: PART C: Energy And The Economy (Time: 7:05)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-17c-energy-and-economy
Chapter 18: Environmental Data (Time: 16:22)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-18-environmental-data
Chapter 19: Future Shock (Time: 8:02)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-19-future-shock
Chapter 20: What Should I Do? (Time: 19:48)
http://www.chrismartenson.com/crashcourse/chapter-20-what-should-i-do

Iako je ceo kurs predstavljen iz američke perspektive, lavovski deo se može primeniti i na nas. Jednostavno, oni imaju jedan ili dva Obamina mandata da isprave stvari koje brljaju od 1913 (a ne izgleda da hoće ) a od njihovog uspeha i mi zavisimo kako direktno tako i indirektno.

Zastrašujuća je pomisao da svake godine na svet dođe novih 70.000.000 ljudi a da je resursa sve manje. Nije bitno da li će nafte biti još sledećih 20 ili 50 godina, pitanje je da li ćemo imati novca i energije da je izvadimo. Videćete da je ono što Dubai radi užasno bahato i neproduktivno korišćenje resursa kojih nema neograničeno. Oni nemaju bukvalno ništa sem peska a umesto ogromnih postrojenja za desalinizaciju i proizvodnju vodonika, vetrenjača, kao i ozelenjavanje pustinje oni grade ski centar. Proći će kao i Vavilon, jer jednostavno neće moći da kupe resurse koji su im neophodni (kupovina stranih kompanija nije rešenje jer vlada pojedine države uvek može da izglasa zabranu izvoza pojedinih sirovina).

Prikazan je primer rudnika bakra u SAD (rupa 4*4*0.5 kilometara) gde je koncentracija bakra samo 0,2%. Samo Kanada ima rudnike uranijuma sa koncentracijom uranijuma od preko 1%. Šta će se desiti kada Dubai bude hteo da pravi još jednu zgradu a cena bakra bude $100.000 po toni, ili čelika 300.000 dolara? Kako će Francuska (80% zavisnosti od nuklearne energije) održati svoju privredu kada više ne bude mogla da nabavi dovoljno uranijuma? Ima ga, ali u rudnicima sa koncentracijom od 0,001% i košta više energije i novca nego što može da se napravi i naplati energije.

Šta mi možemo da uradimo? Prvo, suviše smo mali da bi dobili bilo šta spolja,a što treba i svima drugima, možemo samo da se oslonimo na ono što imamo.

Izrael je shvatio da prvi zadatak odgovorne države nisu atomske centrale ili fabrike već prosvećeno stanovništvo, tj veća ulaganja u obrazovanje i nauku. Oni su pomoću sistema navodnjavanja putem kapi, korišćenjem morske vode za navodnjavanje (gaje paradajz na peščanim dinama!) kao i korišćenjem bakterijskih sojeva (proučavali su bakterije koje žive u korenju biljaka i selektovali one koje pospešuju rast) kao prirodnog đubriva, uspeli su da razviju poljoprivredu, čak i da gaje urme oko mrtvog mora.

Zato sam i počeo sa onom temom o novim tehnologijama, jednostavno, mi kao država nemamo resursa za razbacivanje.

Jedan primer - da li možemo sebi da dozvolimo gradnju brodova koji mnogo troše i prevoze malo putnika? Može li se taj čelik, energija i ljudski rad upotrebiti efikasnije?

Smemo li da gradimo drugačije zgrade sem pametnih, koje same recikliraju đubre i otpadne vode? Hoćemo li imati dovoljno cementa za još nešto sem njih?

Imamo fabriku konzervi. Šta će se desiti kada ne bude imala dovoljno sirovina за proizvodnju? Tetrapak? I za njega je potrebna nafta, kao i za dobar deo proizvoda široke potrošnje. A nafta će biti suviše skupa da bi je kupili.
Ali i za to ima rešenja, u nemačkim železnicama su pre dvadesetak godina testirali tanjire i čaše od smese žitarica, koji se mogu i pojesti ili baciti, razgradiće se za par dana.

Zato je i ona priča o trećoj šini. Nije to nikakav moj bes, već realno sagledavanje stvari. Da li ćemo imati materijala da pravimo i održavamo kontaktnu mrežu sledećih 50 godina? Da li ćemo imati goriva za autobuse? Bioetanol je rupa bez dna i loše rešenje. Vodonik NIJE zamena za naftu, on je ekvivalent baterije (potrebno je užasno mnogo energije da se vodonik proizvede - ako vas interesuje samo energija, pogledajte delove 17A,B i C koji se bave energijom i alternativama nafti).

Zato nam je neophodna i urbana poljoprivreda, tj. jeftin i efikasan sistem uzgajanja namirnica u gradu, jer nije izvesno da ćemo imati novca i energije da hranu brzo dopremamo u dovoljnim količinama.

Idealan primer kako se rešava jedan problem i potreba:

LED sijalice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED_lamp) su skupe, ali traže jedan vat struje i mogu da traju 20 godina. Sada izračunajte koliko se energije, novca i materijala upotrebi za potreban broj klasičnih sijalica u tom vremenskom periodu.

Realno, do fuzionih reaktora (tj. do 2040) možemo samo da se oslonimo na nove brane, vetrenjače i solarne panele, za ostalo nećemo imati novca, ili materijala, ili nećemo biti u mogućnosti da kupimo zbog velike potražnje. Veći akcenat na železnicu i vodene puteve (kanal do Egejskog mora) je dugoročno pametnije rešenje jer će zahtevati manje sredstava za održavanje.

Ovo nije neki kataklizmičan scenario, ali matematika je jednostavna i surova i nikakvo mazanje friziranim podacima neće popraviti stvari. Što pre to shvatimo, pre ćemo ovo pregurati.
Mi kao društvo moramo da shvatimo da više nemamo prava na grešku.
The world is not based on reality but on the perception of reality. The problem is that for most, illusion is the reality...
bigvlada
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Nov 26, 2008 12:44 pm

Mislim da nisam bio dovoljno jasan, tema je povećanje efikasnosti u sve tri gorenavedene kategorije i njihova uzajamna korelacija.
Evo dva članka koja se tiču ekonomske krize i predloga za poboljšanje ekonomije.

ИЗВУЋИ МАКСИМУМ ИЗ МЕЂУНАРОДНИХ ТРЖИШТА


“Мислио сам да бих, ако постоји реинкарнација, волео да се на овај свет вратим као председник Америке, или као папа, или као најбољи бејзбол играч на свету. Али сад бих волео да се вратим као берза. Онда можете свакога да престравите“. Тако је својевремено говорио Џејмс Карвил, сликовити бивши саветник Била Клинтона. Да је само знао како ће његове речи бити пророчанске неке две деценије касније!

Недавни догађаји на финансијским тржиштима широм света су прилично застрашујући. У таквим ситуацијама хладне главе, јасна визија и чврста акција неопходни су да би се прошло кроз вихор.

Али, за име бога, како смо доспели у ову збрку? Много људи у Србији ми је поставило то питање. Но, све то ме још једном уверило да човек у животу треба да буде опрезан у односу на сваки фанатизам и догматизам, без обзира да ли је реч о нерегулисаном капитализму, или командном и контролисаном комунизму.

Дозволите ми да, укратко, покушам да објасним зашто се све десило. У суштини, у Сједињеним државама Америке било је пуно јефтиног новца. Кредити су се лако добијали, по веома ниским каматним стопама. Како су цене некретнина расле пуно новца се вртело у хипотекарним кредитима. Цене кућа су опет расле, још више кредита је одобравано. Позајмице су даване чак и домађинствима чији месечни приход није био довољан да их уредно враћају. Али, пошто су цене кућа и станова ишле навише и како су те куће и станови били залога за кредите, банкари су мислили да нема шансе да изгубе позајмљени новац. Финансијери су видели да све иде супер и хтели су да дају све више и више кредита. Проблем је настајао што су стандарди и правила разборитог кредитирања лимитирали могућност банака да овакве кредите дају у великим количинама. И тако је настала гомила „финансијских иновација“ које су биле смишљене како би се избегле обавезе прописане здравим разумом.

Хипотекарни кредити дати људима са малим примањима – који су имали високе камате – препаковани су у компликоване финансијске производе, који су се продавали разним финансијским институцијама широм света. Многи од тих који су купили те производе (зато што су доносили високе камате) нису били контролисани (чак ни од, како се испоставило, својих сопствених акционара). Власти зато нису имале представу колики износи високо розичних дугова се нагомилалавала. Већина инвеститора није чак користила сопствена средства да купује те кредитне пакете: пошто су то биле познате фирме са добрим рејтингом могле су да добију јефтине кредите да би купили папире који су доносили високе камате. Посао се сматрао прилично сигурним, наравно, под условом да цене некретнина и даље лете у небо. Е, а онда је балон пукао и цене некретнина су отишле наниже. Многа од оних домаћинстава са ниским приходима нису могла да наставе отплату кредита. И тако, чим је дошло до кашњења у отплати горе поменути финансијски производи су постали безвредни. То је оно што зову америчком кризом са хипотекарним кредитима другог реда, односно “sub-prime crisis ”. Тако је дошло до пропасти неких познатих банака. Чак је и једна држава – Исланд – банкротирала. Сви ови догађаји, са своје стране, покренули су друге проблеме. Губици које су банке правиле смањиле су њихову ликвидност и више нису биле вољне да преузимају никакве ризике. Професионалци то зову „кредитни слом“ или “credit crunch”. Губитак поверења навео је финансијске институције да буду превише опрезне приликом кредитирања било кога јер више нико није био сигуран ко ће а ко неће вратити кредите.

Владе широм света интервенисале су милијардама долара у напору да предупреде потпуни слом глобалног финансијског система. Постоје назнаке да су финансијска тржишта избегла најгори могући сценарио, али, као што је и могло да се очекује, проблем се сада пребацио на оно што зовемо „реални сектор“. Мање кредита и уздрмано поверење потрошача значи да долази успоравања привредне активности, што, ако се дозволи да иде без контроле, води суровој рецесији. Одраз тог успоравања привредне активности је и цена нафте која је више него преполовљена у односу на ону која је била овог лета. И цене хране су пале. Следиле су их цене жељеза, бакра и многих других роба. Цене акција неких од најчувенијих компанија тону. Док је пад цена разних роба добра вест за инфлацију то је лоша вест за економски раст. Показује нам да тржишта нису оптимистична кад процењују будућност. Инвеститори су опрезни, банке су опрезне, потрошачи су опрезни, тржишта се смањују, капитал постаје ретка и скупа роба...а привредни раст улази до спирални пад. Јасно је, такође, да нема региона нити земље која не осећа последице међународне финансијске кризе. Једини одговор на то је да велики мотори глобалног привредног раста учине све што је у њиховој моћи да поново покрену своје привреде. Америка, Европа и Јапан боре се из петних жила да то учине, а, што је можда још важније, Кина им се одлучно придружила протекле недеље.

А шта све то значи за Србију? Разумљиво је да је део људи нервозан с обзиром на све што се десило деведесетих година прошлог века. Мешутим, српски финансијски систем је на почетку ове глобалне кризе у много, много бољем стању него што је био у време оне специфично српске кризе почетком деведесетих. Захваљујући здраворазумеској политици Народне банке Србије, овдашњи банкарски сектор је добро капитализован а земља има јаке резерве које треба да је проведу кроз олују. Крајем септембра краткорочни дуг чинио је 14 одсто званичних резерви. На жалост, то не значи да неће бити негативних последица по Србију.

Глобално успоравање ће Србију индиректно погодити. Домаћа тражња је висока и производи дефицит спољно трговинског рачуна од око 18 одсто друштвеног производа. У прошлости је он углавном био финансиран задужењем у иностранству и уласком страних инвестиција. Како кредита буде мање задужење у иностранству постаће скупље. Страни инвеститори биће изузетно пробирљиви и крајње несклони ризику. Шта више, српски извоз, нарочито роба, наићи ће на оштрије услове на суженим међународним тржиштима.

Слика није сасвим мрачна. Србија са својом будућношћу у Европској унији и својим пријатељима на истоку има сјајну привредну локацију. Ако настави да расте по стопи од три – четири одсто, и ако тај раст дође претежно из инвестирања у конкурентне активности (укључујући и инфраструктуру) а не из високе домаће тражње – онда привреда из глобалне кризе може да изађе јача и чвршћа, са тотално смањеним дефицитом спољно трговинског рачуна!!! Неће бити лако. Ваља направити тешку одлуку одржавања буџетског дефицита на испод два одсто друштвеног производа. Ипак, не треба се плашити, то се може урадити!

Simon Gray, the World Bank country Manager in Serbia
http://go.worldbank.org/X2NG405S50
The world is not based on reality but on the perception of reality. The problem is that for most, illusion is the reality...
bigvlada
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Nov 26, 2008 12:47 pm

LET’S KEEP WHAT WE SPEND IN TUNE WITH WHAT WE EARN


“History may not repeat itself, but sometimes it rhymes” Mark Twain prudently cautioned a long time ago. Or, as Karl Marx used to say, “history repeats itself as a farce”. These insightful words should be uppermost in our minds as Serbia prepares its 2008 supplemental budget and its 2009 annual budget.

I would particularly like to focus on one of the most sensitive issues dealt with in the budget – the wage bill. Let me immediately state one of the basic rules of economics: wages increases need to be earned. Put another way, wages should only rise if productivity rises too. Defy this principle and a short-term gain becomes a long-term headache. In the nineties Serbia reaped the treacherous rewards that came from spending beyond her means. That is, the people of Serbia paid the price for paying themselves more than what the economy produced. My country, Zimbabwe, is currently paying the identical price that Serbia paid in those unhappy days. I am not saying that Serbia is anywhere near close to the turbulence of the past, but am just injecting a note of caution that we don’t make idle promises to ourselves, resulting in the implementation of illusions that we can’t afford.

Recent high levels of inflation - with all the negative impact that this could have on the country’s competitiveness, discouraging new investors from building new businesses and creating new jobs - should give us pause for thought.

It is the public sector that is inclined to live beyond its means. The tax-payer picks up this bill, but much more importantly - given a common labor pool - public sector wages set the benchmark for wages throughout the economy, including those in the private sector. Who wouldn’t be happier working in a secure relatively high paid government job rather than slogging it out in the private sector? If the public wage is set too high relative to what the country itself is earning, it puts pressures on private sector salaries eroding the competitiveness of the goods and services we produce. A small clue that we may just be consuming too much relative to what we produce is the ever widening current account deficit.

Perhaps even more compelling is the simple fact that the more public resources are eaten up by wages the less money there is available to invest in infrastructure (roads, railways, hospitals, schools…). Public sector investments are so important for ensuring that healthy Serbians have the skills necessary to compete in this increasingly volatile global economy; and for providing transport systems that support Serbia’s integration into Europe.

So what is the story in Serbia? Public sector wage expenditures represent around 10 percent of country’s GDP, whereas in a sample of countries in Europe and Central Asia it averaged 6.3 percent. Only in Croatia do public sector wages represent a higher percentage of GDP at 11.1 percent. Further afield countries like Chile, Ireland, Korea, Spain or Thailand, renown for their ability to compete in world markets, all managed to keep their public wage-bill at around six percent of GDP. Moreover, some of Serbia’s neighbors have proved that change is possible. Romania spent 7.1 percent of GDP on non-enterprise public sector wages back in 1992 but brought it down to 4.9 percent by 2004. Slovakia, a country whose path to Europe Serbia perhaps would most like to emulate, spends some 5.9 percent of GDP on wages. Yes, I know comparisons can be odious, but take a look at the graph comparing Serbia’s per capita average salary to a varied sample of European countries. It tells the same story!

It is perhaps a little unfair to focus on non-enterprise public wages when it seems to me that the real culprit in pumping up wages may be monopoly state- or municipally-owned enterprises. Let me give you an example. The average monthly wage in 2007 was around 70,000 dinars in a municipal company in Belgrade that manages leisure facilities. In another big Serbian city the average wage across a number of public utility companies is 72,000 dinars. The public company that collects garbage in this city has an average wage of 65,000 dinars. This is almost one and a half times the average wage in Hungary which over the same period stood at approximately 40,000 dinars. There is undoubtedly a very strong incentive to work in the public sector in Serbia. While net salaries in the private sector averaged 27,000 dinars over the period January to May 2008, those in state owned companies averaged 50 000 dinars, those in municipal companies 33,500 dinars and in public administration just under 40,000 dinars.

This is not new news. As ever, Serbia knows what its problems are and there is no shortage of talented policy makers and technicians that could be mobilized to tackle the issues. Look at what government’s own May 2008 Memorandum of the Budget says: “growth of salaries in public sector, including Republic and local public utility enterprises, will be under control and will be in line with the trends in productivity and labor market conditions. It is unjustifiable (my emphasis) for employees in monopolies to have substantially higher salaries than those paid for identical positions in the labor market, and that salaries in businesses keep increasing at a pace above average”.

What is needed is commitment and follow-through on these policy pronouncements. These are testing times in Serbia as new budgets are drafted. Policy makers need the political and popular support to make it happen. So let’s help them make sure that spending rhymes with earnings.

Simon Gray, the World Bank country Manager in Serbia

http://go.worldbank.org/9NU2D2FOA0
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Dec 03, 2008 9:51 am

Ovo je jedan primer kako se ovo radi u Kanadi, shavtite ovo kao revizorski izveštaj domaćinstva, koji se tiče energetske efikasnosti. Pročitajte pa možemo da pričamo o tome kako ovo implementirati kod nas.

Energy Efficiency Evaluation Report
File number: Sample


Property Owner:

Smith, Mr & Mrs
123 Fake St
Mississauga, Ontario
A1A1A1

EnerGuide Rating


House type: Single detached

No. of storeys: Two

No. of RO windows: 9
RO = rough opening

Air conditioner: Yes

Main energy source: Natural gas

Heating system: Furnace

Domestic hot water: Natural gas

Air leakage rate @ 50 Pa: 5.05 ACH
ACH = number of air changes per hour

Equivalent Leakage Area: 751.3 cm2


The results of your pre-retrofit energy evaluation show that your house rates 70 points on the EnerGuide scale. If you implement all of the recommendations in this report, you could reduce your energy consumption by up to 34% and increase your home's energy efficiency rating to 80 points. The average energy efficiency rating for a house of this age in Ontario is 66; whereas the highest rating achieved by the most energy-efficient house in this category is 87.

Did you know that when you reduce the amount of energy used in your home, you also reduce the production of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide? By improving your home's energy efficiency rating to 80 points, you will reduce its GHG emissions by 2.2 tonnes per year!

1. YOUR HOME ENERGY ACTION CHECKLIST

This is your checklist of recommended retrofits to improve the energy efficiency of your home. Included are
the federal grant amounts that you could receive as well as information on the potential for energy savings and EnerGuide rating improvement. For more information, read the 'Recommended Energy-Saving
Measures' section of this report and the NRCan brochure entitled Retrofit Your Home and Qualify for a Grant!
found in your ecoENERGY homeowner kit. Before undertaking upgrades or renovations, find out about the appropriate products and installation techniques, and ensure that all renovations meet local building codes
and by-laws.Note: Some provinces and territories offer complimentary grants and other incentives for reducing energy use
in the home.

Retrofits

These upgrades qualify for a federal grant up to a maximum total incentive value of $5,000:

* One (1) star = lowest savings / five (5) stars = highest savings

Federal
Incentive

Potential
for
Energy
Savings *

Potential
Rating
Improvement


HEATING SYSTEM $500,3 stars, 6.2 points
Replace your heating equipment with an ENERGY STAR® qualified
gas furnace that has a 92.0% annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)
or better, equipped with a DC variable-speed motor.


VENTILATION SYSTEM $300, one star, 0.1 points
Install a heat recovery ventilator that is certified by the Home
Ventilating Institute (HVI).


COOLING SYSTEM (A/C) $200, no star, 0 points
Replace your central air conditioner system with an ENERGY STAR®
qualified outdoor unit (condenser coil) and matched indoor evaporator coil
(inside furnace or ductwork), which are rated at SEER 14 or more.


DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM (DHW) $250, one star, 0.8 points
Replace your domestic hot water heater with an instantaneous gas
water heater that has an energy factor (EF) of 0.8 or better.


WINDOWS AND DOORS $240, two stars, 2.4 points
Replace 8 window(s) / skylight(s) with models that are ENERGY
STAR® qualified for climate zone B.


AIR SEALING $150, one star, 0.4 points
Improve the air tightness of your house by 10 percent to achieve an
air change rate per hour of 4.5 at a pressure of 50 Pa.


WATER CONSERVATION $100, no star, 0 points
Replace 2 toilet(s) with low-flush or dual flush toilet(s) that meet(s) the
minimum requirements.

DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEM (DHW) $75, one star, 0.8 points
Install a drain water heat recovery (DWHR) system.

2. THE ENERGUIDE RATING SYSTEM

The EnerGuide rating system is a standardized method of evaluation that lets homeowners compare their
house's energy efficiency rating to similar sized houses in similar regions. The EnerGuide rating considers the house's estimated annual energy consumption based on an in-depth evaluation of the house's
characteristics such as location, size, equipment and systems, insulation levels, air tightness, etc. In addition,
standardized conditions are used when calculating the rating in order to compare the efficiency of one house
to another. These conditions include: a complete air change approximately every three hours; four
occupants; a fixed thermostat setting of 21°C on main floors and 19°C in the basement; average hot water consumption of 225 litres per day; average national electricity consumption of 24 kWh per day; and the
regional weather data that is averaged over the last 30 years.

Figures 1 through 3 show the results of your energy evaluation based on the standardized conditions. The results may not entirely reflect your household since your actual energy consumption and future savings are influenced by the number of occupants, their day-to-day habits and lifestyles.

3. ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Houses lose heat to the outdoors during the heating season primarily through air leakage and conduction,
such as the transfer of heat through the basement and exterior walls, ceilings, windows and doors (the
'building envelope'). Canada's demanding climate and modifications made to the house, such as drilling holes
in walls for new wiring, pipes and lights, all play a part in reducing the efficiency of the building envelope over time. Houses need to be regularly maintained and upgraded to ensure greater energy efficiency, comfort and
savings.

Figure 1 breaks down your house's estimated annual energy consumption for space heating, hot water and lights and appliances.

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4. SPACE HEATING ANALYSIS

Figure 2 shows the estimated percentage of energy used for the space heating of your home.

 The right side of the top bar shows the percentage of energy you could save if you were to implement
all of the upgrades recommended in this report, excluding changes to the space heating equipment. You could save up to 16 percent by performing all of the recommended non-space heating system upgrades.
 The right side of the bottom bar shows the percentage of energy you could save if you were to implement all of the upgrades recommended in this report, including any space heating system upgrades. You could save up to 49 percent by performing all of the recommended upgrades.

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Figure 3 shows where the energy used for space heating is lost from your home. This energy is measured in
gigajoules (GJ), where 1 GJ is equivalent to 278 kilowatt-hours (kWh) or 948,000 Btu/hour.

The red bars show the areas of your home where you are losing energy now. The longer the bar, the more energy you are losing. The green bars show the estimated energy loss after you complete your renovations. The larger the difference between the red and the green bars, the greater the potential for energy savings
and comfort improvements.

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5. RECOMMENDED ENERGY-SAVING MEASURES


Domestic Hot Water Systems (DHW)

After space heating, water heating is the second largest user of energy in most Canadian homes, accounting
for some 20% of total annual energy consumption. Part of this energy consumption is wasted through
standby heat loss and wasted hot water. Standby heat loss is usually heat lost through tank walls and water piping. For fuel-fired tank water heaters, it also includes heat loss up the chimney.

The efficiency of fuel-fired DHW equipment is expressed as the energy factor (EF) or thermal efficiency. The higher the number, the more efficient the water heater will be. The efficiency of electric DHW equipment is expressed in Watts of standby loss, where the lower the number, the more efficient is the water heater.

If you are replacing your DHW heater, look for an energy-efficient model and make sure it's not oversized for your needs. Use manufacturers' sizing charts available from your contractor or retailer. For tank water
heaters, look for models that have an external cold-water inlet at the bottom of the tank and integral heat
traps. Also look for high overall insulation values.

Water- and Energy-Saving Tips:

 Fix dripping taps.
 Install low-flow showerheads, with ratings of less than 9.5 litres per minute.
 Install faucet aerators.
 Wash laundry with cold water.
 Insulate metallic, hot and cold water pipes with pipe insulation. Water will arrive at the faucets closer to the desired temperature, either warmer or cooler. This reduces tap running time and reduces water
wastage. Insulating cold-water pipes also reduces condensation on the pipes that can cause water
stains on surrounding areas.

Note: For fuel-fired water heaters, maintain a 15-centimetre (six-inch) clearance between the pipe insulation and the vent pipe.

Air Sealing
Reducing air leakage is usually the most cost-effective measure a homeowner can undertake; the leakier the home, the greater the savings! It is not unusual for air leakage to account for 35% of the heat loss in a home.
In addition to reducing heat loss, air sealing improves comfort, protects the building structure and other
materials from moisture damage, and reduces the amount of dust and noise that enters from the outdoors.

A blower door test was performed on your home to measure the amount of air leakage, and to identify the main air leakage locations. The blower door test results are shown on the first page of this report and are explained below.

The Air Leakage Rate at 50 Pascals (ACH) is the number of complete air changes per hour that occurs in
your house when a pressure difference between the inside and outside of the home is set at 50 Pascals (Pa).
A 50-Pa pressure difference simulates wind blowing at 56 kilometers per hour on your home. The higher the
ACH, the leakier the house.

The Equivalent Leakage Area (ELA) represents the total air leakage area. It's like taking all of the air
leakage areas (e.g., cracks, holes, etc.) in the home and putting them together to create one large hole in the building envelope. The larger the ELA, the leakier the house. An energy-efficient house might have an ELA
as low as 258 cm² (40 square inches) while a leaky house may have an ELA of more than 3226 cm² (500
square inches)

Air Sealing Locations in Your Home
Listed below are the most common air leakage areas in a house. Leaks observed during the blower door test are noted. This list will help guide your air-sealing work:

 electrical outlets
 electrical ceiling fixtures
 electrical box and wire penetration
 exterior pipe penetration
 baseboard trims and mouldings
 window frames
 door frames
 fireplace
 chimney
 attic hatch
 basement header (rim joists)
 other _

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Air Sealing Options
Air sealing can be a do-it-yourself option. Another option is to hire a qualified, professional, air sealer who can locate and seal leaks in your home and likely do a more thorough job. This may be an important
consideration if you want to air seal your house to meet a specific air leakage goal, and be eligible for a grant. Professional whole-house air sealing costs vary, depending on the size and complexity of the work.

Air Sealing Materials
Weatherstripping reduces air leakage by sealing gaps around moveable parts of windows and doors. Correctly installed, good quality weatherstripping is a cost-effective way to reduce air leakage. Check
weatherstripping annually and replace worn materials before the cold weather sets in.

Caulking is used on the interior to seal small cracks and penetrations on the inside surface of your walls, ceilings and floors. Caulking is also used on the exterior to keep out rain, snow, wind as well as insects and rodents. Urethane foam is very good for filling larger joints and cavities.

Recommendation:
I recommend air sealing your home to achieve the air-leakage rate indicated at the beginning of this report, in the section Your Home Energy Action Checklist. You must meet or exceed the goal indicated to be eligible
for an ecoENERGY Retrofit grant for air sealing. The results of the air sealing work will be measured at the time of your post-retrofit evaluation.

Attic Insulation
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In addition to reducing energy use, increasing the insulation level of your attic will keep your house warmer during the winter and cooler during the summer. Effective insulation and air sealing slow the movement of heat and air, and help prevent moisture accumulation in the attic.

When insulating attics, the importance of air sealing cannot be overstated. Before insulating, seal all openings and
penetrations to stop interior air from entering the attic. Seal
gaps around ceiling light fixtures, plumbing stacks, wiring, chimneys and the tops of interior walls. Install weatherstripping
around the hatch or door, and use hooks with eye bolts or a
latch to hold the hatch firmly against the weatherstripping.


Ensure that soffit venting is not blocked by the insulation.
Baffles may need to be installed against the underside of the roof along the soffits to ensure proper ventilation.
Grant Eligibility: Attic insulation upgrades are eligible for an ecoENERGY Retrofit – Homes grant. The grant amount differs according to the existing insulation value and the total insulation value achieved.


Windows
You may be considering replacing some or all of your windows for various reasons, such as to improve aesthetics, reduce maintenance, increase house resale value, improve comfort, energy efficiency or safety,
or to replace broken or inoperable windows. Remember that the selection of new windows for your home will affect energy efficiency and comfort levels for years to come. Technical breakthroughs such as low-E
coatings, triple glazing, inert gas fills, and better edge spacers and frames have improved window technology
in recent years, offering improvements in solar control, thermal comfort and energy efficiency.

ENERGY STAR®-qualified windows, which are rated for four climate zones, are among the most energy efficient in the marketplace. They will help keep your home comfortable all year-round and reduce noise from the outside. Depending on the amount of humidity in your home, there will be less condensation on your windows during cold weather.


Grant Eligibility: The replacement of windows and skylights with models that are ENERGY STAR-qualified
is eligible for an ecoENERGY Retrofit – Homes grant. However, you must choose models that are ENERGY STAR-qualified for your climate zone. Keep proof of the ENERGY STAR qualification of the windows for your
climate zone and show it to the energy advisor during the post-retrofit evaluation of your home. A window is defined as the rough opening (RO) in the wall under ecoENERGY Retrofit – Homes. The RO is the opening
in the wall when the entire window unit is removed. The first page of this report indicates how many ROs are
in your home.

Recommendation:
Replace selected windows with ENERGY STAR-qualified windows. When replacing your windows, make sure that the models you select match your climate zone. Refer to the section of this report entitled ‘Your Home Energy Action Checklist’ to determine your climate zone and the number of windows recommended
for replacement.

Heating System
If you are considering replacing your heating system, it is strongly recommended that you follow these important steps first:

 Complete all of the other energy efficiency upgrades, such as air sealing and insulation, because this will likely result in the need for a smaller and less expensive heating system. It will also help prevent potential discomfort in your home caused by oversized equipment.
 Next, ensure that your heating contractor performs a heat loss calculation on your home to determine the capacity and distribution flows for the new equipment. The contractor should hold current certification for Heat Loss/Heat Gain Calculations from the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI).

6. ENERGY-SAVING TIPS

Although these actions may not eligible for an incentive, they will help you save energy and money:

 Install and use a programmable electronic thermostat (set the heating temperature to 20°C while you
are at home and 17°C at night and when you are away). For each degree of setback, you can save up
to 2 percent on your heating bills.
 When replacing lighting, appliances, electronics and office equipment, look for ENERGY STAR®
qualified products. ENERGY STAR® qualified products use less than half as much energy in standby mode (i.e. when they are turned "off").
 Replace your light bulbs with energy-efficient ones, such as compact fluorescents. They last longer and reduce electricity consumption.
 Insulate the first two metres of the hot and cold water pipes with insulating foam sleeves or pipe wrap insulation. By doing so you will save on your water heating costs and will reduce your water
consumption. Besides saving energy, water will arrive at the faucets warmer or colder. Insulating cold water pipes will also avoid condensation from forming on the pipes. This prevents dripping on the
ceiling finish or the basement floor. For a fuel-fired water heater, maintain a 15-centimetre (6-inch)
clearance between the water piping insulation and the vent pipe.
 Use a timer for your car's block heater. Set the timer so that it turns on two hours before you start your vehicle.
 Install an ENERGY STAR® qualified kitchen or bathroom exhaust fan.
 Install a timer on your bathroom exhaust fan(s).
 Install low-flow showerheads (rated at less than 9.8 litres per minute [L/min]) and faucet aerators.
 Fix leaky faucets and outside hose bibs.
 Plug your home office equipment into a power bar that can be easily turned off when equipment is not
in use. Refer to the fact sheet Standby Power - When "Off" Means "On" for information on standby losses.

Dakle, u čemu je stvar? Recimo da imate državnu revizorsku agenciju koja se bavi energetskom efikasnošću vašeg doma/kompanije/proizvodnog pogona. Neka pored nje postoji i pedesetak privatnih koje imaju odgovarajuće stručnjake i dozvole za rad.

Kod njih ovakav izveštaj košta 350 dolara (valjda kanadskih) što se može prilagoditi našim mogućnostima. Država sa svoje strane daje subvencije za nabavku pojedinih efikasnijih kućnih sistema. Dugoročno, to se vraća kroz manju potrošnju struje/vode/gasa itd...

Ovo može da bude sjajna nova grana male privrede, jer bi postojale firme koje bi mogle da vrše precizne izmene (građevinske/zamena bele tehnike itd...) na osnovu ovakvog izveštaja i bile konkurentnije jer bi mogle da ponude niže cene nego da sami odete i npr. zamenite frižider nekim sa energy star oznakom.
Poslednja izmena od bigvlada u Sre Dec 03, 2008 9:54 am, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Dec 03, 2008 9:56 am

Evo kako možete da učite klince od malih nogu da je važno štedeti energiju.
U pitanju je online flash igrica, gde vodite energuy-a i potrebno je da za dva minuta pronađete sve stvari u kući koje mogu da se pobošljaju. :D


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Postod Ambassador » Sre Dec 03, 2008 10:08 am

GENIJALNO!!!

Sad sam igrao, u p*** m******* tesko, narocito kad ti padne, ili ga spicis u plafon.. lol.. Ali sam zato imao 20/20.. U poslednjo sekundi sam iskljucio kadu.. :cool:
Denacionalizujte Novi Beograd, rehabilitujte mo
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Postod bigvlada » Ned Dec 07, 2008 11:37 am

EnergyHub: A Simple Solution for Energy Efficiency
by Jason Sahler

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One of the many barriers that impedes us from living a greener life at home is the lack of any simple and reliable way to gauge how much energy we are consuming. We can turn off our lights and computers, but we are still kept in the dark as to our true levels of our consumption. As price and demand for energy continue to climb, it becomes that much more important to have access to vital information about our energy use, which is exactly what the EnergyHub hopes to provide.


While some may opt for a simpler lifestyle with less energy use, for the most part people are going to continue on their current path of energy consumption, if not increase it. Founded by a team of former robotics and aerospace engineers, EnergyHub’s array of software and hardware looks to bring a sense of control to consumer’s homes.

To do this they’re focusing on a key point in reigning in our energy consumption: the access to information. When we are able to accurately read and monitor our own consumption we will be able to take action. By giving “home consumers an immediate, accurate and complete picture of their electricity usage” EnergyHub hopes to reduce home energy usage by up to 20%.

The EnergyHub dashboard allows households to set monthly energy targets and gives detailed information about current consumption levels. It’s information can also be accessible from the internet, and users will be able to compare data with neighbors and peers.

There’s something to be said for tapping into our competitive nature to get those energy levels down! People could take a cue from mpg-stretching Prius drivers and strive for the lowest possible level of energy use.

Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/08/14/energyhub-household-monitering-system/#more-13373
Poslednja izmena od bigvlada u Ned Dec 07, 2008 11:38 am, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
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Postod bigvlada » Ned Dec 07, 2008 11:41 am

Još jedna igra koja podučava decu kako da se odnose prema životnoj sredini.

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Postod bigvlada » Ned Jan 11, 2009 9:28 am

kako da decu od malih nogu naučite da čuvaju energiju i životnu sredinu, 6 u 1 igračaka na solarni pogon

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Postod bigvlada » Pon Jan 19, 2009 9:59 am

Kovačić: Cilj države treba da bude energetska nezavisnost
Autor: Tanjug | 19.01.2009. - 07:51

Zamenik direktora Agencije za energetsku efikasnost Bojan Kovačić ocenio je danas da "politički, energetski, ekonomski i ekološki razlozi nalažu da Srbija razvija nove obnovljive izvore energije" i da cilj države treba da bude što veća energetska nezavisnost i bezbednost.

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Solarne ćelije

On je precizirao da Srbija, kada su u pitanju obnovljivi izvori energije, poseduje velike potencijale kojima bi moglo da se zameni do 25 odsto sadašnje primarne potrošnje energije. Primarna potrošnja energije ekvivalentna je količini od oko 16 miliona tona nafte, a potencijali obnovljivih izvora energije su po energetskoj snazi jednaki količini od oko 3,8 miliona tona nafte, ukazao je Kovačić.
"Cilj države treba da bude što veća energetska nezavisnost i bezbednost, kako bi se energetske potrebe zemlje mogle zadovoljiti bez obzira na različite političke nestabilnosti u svetu, kao što je trenutna kriza Rusije i Ukrajine", istakao je Kovačević.
"Teško je postići potpunu energetsku bezbednost, pogotovo nezavisnost", rekao je Kovačić i dodao da projektovana zavisnost Srbije od uvoza energenata, posebno gasa i nafte, za ovu godinu iznosi oko 42 odsto.
Značaj novih izvora energije, kako je naveo, bitan je iz više razloga, pre svega političkih, jer smo zbog različitih nestabilnosti i kriza kao što je rusko-ukrajinska, u problemu da zadovoljimo svoje energetske potrebe.
Drugi razlog zbog čega su novi izvori energije značajni je zadovoljavanje energetskih potreba zemlje, a ti izvori bitni su i iz ekoloških i ekonomskih razloga.

"Ti izvori značajni su u ekonomskom smislu zbog otvaranja novih radnih mesta, razvoja ruralnih područja, gde se ti kapaciteti obično nalaze, kao i zbog šanse koju predstavljaju za domaću mašinsku industriju, zbog proizvodnje delova za ta postrojenja koja proizvode struju iz obnovljivih izvora energije, naglasio je Kovačević.
Prema njegovim rečima, najveći i najznačajniji potencijal je biomasa, jednaka po energetskoj vrednosti količini od oko 2,4 miliona tona nafte, a ako se upotrebi isti ekvivalent, iz sektora poljoprivrede se može dobiti energija jednaka sa 1,4 miliona tona nafte, a od šumskog ogrevnog drveta i industrijskog otpada od drveta još jedna tona.
Veliki potencijal je i u malim hidroelektranama, geotermalnoj energiji, energiji vetra, kao i energiji sunca. Godišnje Srbija ima više od 2.000 sunčanih sati, što nije zanemarljivo.
Kovačević je podsetio da je krajem decembra prošle godine i formalno završen projekat koji je realizovala agencija, a koji je donatorskim sredstvima u vrednosti od 204.000 evra finasirala Španija.

Tada je u Privrednoj komori Srbije predstavljena Studija za merenje potencijala vetra u opštini Negotin, s obzirom da je ona bila najpovoljnija od tri lokacije gde su vršena merenja godinu dana.
Kovačić je naveo da je tom studijom obuhvaćeno ne samo merenje potencijala vetra, već i ekonomska analiza, analiza zaštite životne sredine, pravni okvir, geomehanika tla, kao i mogućnost priključenja na elektromrežu.
On je ukazao da je Agencija ponovo podnela prijavu na konkurs i izrazio nadu da će se donatorska sredstva španske vlade biti ponovo odobrena, kako bi u Srbiji bila ispitana mogućnost dobijanja električne energije iz fotonaponskih ćelija.
Reč je o silicijumskim ćelijama pomoću kojih se sunčeva svetlost pretvara u električnu energiju i ta tehnologija, koja može biti korišćena i za domaćinstva i za veće investicije, je još uvek dosta skupa.
"Ukoliko nam budu data donatorska sredstva, realizovaćemo ispitivanje pomenute mogućnosti na pet lokacija u različitim regionima u Srbiji", rekao je Kovačić.

Kako je naveo, interesovanje investitora postoji, a Ministarstvo energetike i rudarstva priprema paket subvencija za energiju proizvedenu iz obnovljivih izvora energije, sa kojima će period isplativosti biti kraći.
To je sistem podsticajnih otkupnih cena po kojima država otkupljuje energiju od investitora po većoj ceni od obične (Feed in tarif sistem), što će podstaći investitore na ulaganja.
Kovačić je istakao da bi postojanje tih subvencija trebalo da dovede do značajnog povećanja investicija u obnovljive izvore energije u Srbiji i ukazao da je potrebno pojednostaviti i ubrzati administrativne procedure vezane za dobijanje dozvola, mišljenja i saglasnosti različitih državnih organa.

Izvor: Blic
http://www.blic.rs/ekonomija.php?id=74817

Nisam znao da imamo Agenciju za energetsku efikasnost. Ovo je pravi članak u duhu ove teme, subvencijama u obnovljive izvore energije podstiče se zelena privreda, čuva životna sredina, smanjuje deficit i zavisnost od fosilnih goriva. A višak možemo i da izvozimo. Još električni automobili i autobusi i na konju smo. :D
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Postod bigvlada » Pon Feb 02, 2009 10:41 am

Naš inženjer projektovao kuću koju greje samo sunce
Solarni kućerak u Sremu
Autor: Branislav Krivokapić | Foto:G. Sivački | 01.02.2009. - 00:01

U jednom danu do zemlje stigne sunčeva energija veća od energije svih poznatih rezervi fosilnih goriva. Delić sunčevog poklona Milenko Milinković iskoristio je da u Boljevcima nadomak Beograda izgradi kuću kojoj, bar kada je reč o štednji energije, nema ravne u svetu.

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Kada ga pitate zašto je kuća u obliku polulopte, prečnika 18,5 metara, Milenko će vam spremno odgovoriti: „A gde ste vi u prirodi videli kockaste oblike?“ Uz podsećanje na zemunice i igloe, sledi objašnjenje da je sferni oblik matematički najoptimalniji jer s minimalnom površinom zatvara najveću zapreminu.
Ulaskom u kuću koja je sa zadnje strane potpuno ukopana u zemlju, a sa prednje sva u staklu stupa se u 220 kvadratnih metara prostranu dnevnu sobu u čijem je prizemlju solarni bazen, a na spratu dve spavaće sobe sa kupatilima i obaveznim džakuzijem. Zahvaljujući kolektorima površine 115 kvadratnih metara, Milinković za grejanje troši svega 15 kilovat-časova toplotne energije po kvadratnom metru godišnje. Poređenja radi, stanovi novije gradnje u Beogradu po kvadratu godišnje troše iznad 100 kwh toplotne energije, a slične solarne kuće u svetu ne manje od 40 kwh.

[b]Dobio orden rada

– Mogućnosti za korišćenje solarne energije su ogromne, posebno kad je reč o grejanju vode. Zbog toga su mnoge zemlje ovo pitanje već i zakonski regulisale – kaže Milinković, po struci inženjer elektrotehnike koji se dugo bavio telekomunikacijama. Kao direktor PTT-a, u rodnom Vukovaru ostao je upamćen kao čovek koji je broj priključaka fiksne telefonije u ovoj opštini povećao sa pet na 33 priključka na 100 stanovnika. Bilo je to davne 1987, a pomenuti nivo u fiksnoj telefoniji Srbija je dostigla tek poslednjih godina.
Uz orden rada sa srebrnim vencem, kojim ga je odlikovalo tadašnje rukovodstvo Hrvatske, priznanje za svoj uspeh Milenko je dobio i na prvim višestranačkim izborima 1990. U opštini sa 32 odsto Srba „ubrao“ je 67 odsto glasova i postao zastupnik u Saboru. Ali politička karijera je trajala kratko. Izbio je rat pa se sa porodicom preselio u Beograd gde je prebacio i sedište firme „Milinković Company“ koja je do danas izrasla u stabilno preduzeće sa preko 50 zaposlenih, od čega čak 16 sa fakultetskom diplomom.

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Dnevna soba sa bazenom okrenuta je ka jugu kako bi paneli prikupili što više sunčevih zraka


Nedugo po napuštanju Vukovara, u Boljevcima je kupio kuću u neposrednoj blizini ribnjaka „Živača“. Danas se Milinkovićevo imanje prostire na 14 hektara na kojima se, osim stare kuće i pomenutog solarnog čuda, nalaze i dve ferocementne hale, kao i jezero napravljeno od nekadašnjeg rukavca Save. A oko jezera, kao što to biva u Sremu, kučići, kokoške, guske, patke. Tu, u tišini seoske idile, spremaju se novi poduhvati među kojima je najinteresantniji projekat školske sportske hale od ferocementa, materijala za čiju je primenu Milinković jedan od najvećih stručnjaka u svetu, o čemu svedoči i zlatna medalja koju je oktobra prošle godine dobio na kongresu u Kini.

Uspeh u Singapuru
– Ferocement je tankoslojni, sitnozrni armirani beton koji se armira sa više slojeva rabik mreže i koji ima čitav niz prednosti u odnosu na armirane betonske elemente istih mehaničkih karakteristika: lak je za obradu, vek trajanja mu je 200 godina, a otporan je na vodu, visoke temperature, vetrove i zemljotrese. Uz to objekti izgrađeni od ferocementa su za oko 25 odsto jeftiniji od klasično građenih, troškovi grejanja i održavanja su niži za 50 odsto, a sama gradnja je neuporedivo brža. Za podizanje hale od 1.000 kvadratnih metara dovoljno je svega 15 dana – objašnjava Milinković, čiji je projekat ferocementnih sportskih hala dobio podršku i Ministarstva prosvete i Ministarstva omladine i sporta koje se u dugoročnoj strategiji razvoja fizičke kulture opredelilo upravo za gradnju malih i jeftinijih fiskulturnih sala.
A što se tiče solarnih kuća, one će u državi koja je po energetskoj efikasnosti na dnu svetske lestvice još zadugo ostati naučna fantastika. Na Kubi i još nekim karipskim zemljama koje često stradaju od razornih uragana razmišljaju drugačije i veoma su zainteresovani za Milinkovićev projekat. Nakon međunarodnog simpozijuma u Singapuru 2001, solarna kuća, čiji smo prototip videli u Boljevcima, izazvala je izuzetno interesovanje stručne javnosti i ubrzo je našla mesto u vodećim udžbenicima arhitekture i na stranicama najuglednijih ekoloških časopisa. U Srbiji, nažalost, šverc naočara za sunce još uvek je unosniji od korišćenja solarne energije.

Haško iskustvo [/b]
Iako je imao više ponuda, Milenko Milinković u Srbiji nije želeo da se politički angažuje. Politika je ovde, kaže, sasvim drugačija nego u uređenim zemljama, na primer, u Holandiji, u kojoj je boravio kada je u Hagu bio svedok na suđenju Slavku Dokmanoviću.
– Sedeo sam sa prijateljem u jednom haškom restoranu u koji su, peške i bez telohranitelja, ulazili i holandski ministri. Kao obični ljudi koji su privremeno državni činovnici sa zakonom precizno utvrđenim obavezama i zadacima – priča Milinković.

Izvor: Blic
http://www.blic.rs/reportaza.php?id=76853
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Postod bigvlada » Uto Feb 03, 2009 9:05 am

U člancima koje kačim se često pominje skraćenica LEED. Evo objašnjenja:

LEED for Homes is a rating system that promotes the design and construction of high-performance green homes. A green home uses less energy, water and natural resources; creates less waste; and is healthier and more comfortable for the occupants. Benefits of a LEED home include lower energy and water bills; reduced greenhouse gas emissions; and less exposure to mold, mildew and other indoor toxins. The net cost of owning a LEED home is comparable to that of owning a conventional home.

U prevodu, skuplja izgradnja, jeftinije održavanje.

Na sajtu US Green Building Council-a (http://www.usgbc.org/displaypage.aspx?cmspageid=147) možete saznati sve što vas zanima da bi sami napravili sopstvenu zelenu kuću (a i investitorima nije naodmet da pogledaju, cena kvadrata u zelenim zgradama može da bude viša).
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Postod bigvlada » Uto Mar 03, 2009 8:42 am

Google Debuts PowerMeter Energy Monitoring Tool
by Mike Chino

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From joule-counting energy jars to twittering power monitors we’ve got power meters on the brain as of late, what with the upcoming Greener Gadgets Conference and Design Competition. Proving that great minds really do think alike, we’re excited to hear that Google is getting into the energy-saving act with their recently debuted PowerMeter. The application will collect information from utility meters and energy monitors and provide easy access to energy statistics right from your iGoogle homepage.

With the global energy crisis mounting and energy efficiency on everybody’s minds, we’re presented with a conundrum - how can we start saving energy if we can’t quantify our current consumption? Fortunately there’s a variety of products out there that will monitor your household energy use, and now Google’s new PowerMeter offers a powerful way to track, analyze, and make sense of the data. The web-based application will provide real-time data on energy use, making it easy to track energy-saving behavior. You can even share data to strike up a bit of healthy competition among your friends and neighbors.

The new service will be rolling out over the next few months, although Google has not teamed up with any hardware manufacturers as of yet.
http://www.google.org/powermeter/howitworks.html

Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/02/10/google-debuts-powermeter-energy-monitoring-app/#more-19268
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Postod bigvlada » Pet Mar 20, 2009 9:36 am

Zbog štetnosti po životnu sredinu
U EU za tri godine više neće biti tradicionalnih sijalica
Autor: Tanjug | 19.03.2009. - 17:02

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Evropska komisija definitivno je zabranila klasične sijalice, čije bi povlačenje sa tržišta EU trebalo da počne već ove godine, a da se njihova zamena ekološkim i štedljivim sijalicama obavi do kraja 2012.

Juče usvojene dve uredbe, koje se odnose na poboljšanje energetske efikasnosti sijalica koje se koriste u domaćinstvima, firmama i industriji, kao i uličnog osvetljenja, trebalo bi da do 2020. godine donesu uštedu 80 teravat sati (TWh), što približno odgovara potrošnji električne energije Belgije. Ovim merama bi trebalo da bude postignuto i smanjenje emisije ugljen dioksida (CO2) za 32 miliona tona godišnje.
Povlačenjem klasičnih sijalica iz upotrebe će, kako se pretpostavlja, svake godine moći da se uštedi 11 milijardi evra. Domaćinstva će pritom za osvetljenje moći da izaberu između halogenih lampi, koje troše za 25 do 50 procenata manje energije i kompaktnih fluorescentnih sijalica, čija je potrošnja čak za 75 odsto manja nego kada se koriste tradicionalne sijalice.

Tradicionalna sijalica služila je čoveku punih 128 godina, koliko je proteklo od momenta kada je pronalazač Tomas Alva Edison predstavio svetu funkcionalni sistem vlakna zažarenog strujom, koje u vakumskoj oblozi emituje svetlost. Stručnjaci međutim ističu da je izum, koji je predstavljao revoluciju u 19. veku, prevaziđen, jer se u proseku samo pet procenata potrošene električne energije u klasičnim sijalicama pretvara u svetlost, dok 95 odsto nekorisno odlazi u toplotu.
Ni neonke, koje su prethodnih decenija polako počele da zamenjuju klasične sijalice se, međutim, ne smatraju najboljim izvorom svetlosti, takođe zbog energetske neefikasnosti. Iako su po tom pitanju bolje od klasičnih sijalica, u svetlost pretvaraju samo 15 do 30 procenata električne energije.

Izvor: Blic
http://www.blic.rs/svet.php?id=84306

Samo da dodam, postoje i LED sijalice, koje troše oko 1,8W i traju dvadesetak godina. Ima ih i u Beogradu.
Poslednja izmena od bigvlada u Pet Mar 20, 2009 9:37 am, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
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Postod bigvlada » Sre Apr 01, 2009 8:43 am

EBRD najavio kredite za održivu energiju na Balkanu

31. mart 2009. | 10:36

Izvor: Beta

Grad: Sarajevo

Predsednik Evropske banke za obnovu i razvoj Tomas Mirou najavio u Sarajevu pokretanje projekta nove energetske kreditne linije od 50 miliona evra za održivu energiju Zapadnog Balkana i projekte direktnog pozajmljivanja.

Taj novac bi bio dat na raspolaganje bankama za kreditiranje preduzeća i domaćinstava, za ulaganja koja za rezultat imaju povećanje energetske efikasnosti, rekao je Mirou na skupu o energetici.

Predsedavajući Saveta ministara BiH Nikola Špirić je rekao da je Bosna I Herecegovina i dalje većinski izvoznik električne energije u regionu zahvaljujući resursima vode i uglja.

Izvor: Ekonomist
http://www.emportal.rs/vesti/region/83905.html

Suma je mala, ali ok za početak. Sada treba da usvojimo (ili ih već imamo) standarde kao što su leed postovani gore. Počnite skromno, zamenite jednu klasičnu sijalicu (40/60/80/100W) jednom led sijalicom (1,8-2,5W) mesečno.
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Postod bigvlada » Uto Maj 12, 2009 8:14 am

Energy 101: How to Monitor Your Energy
by Ariel Schwartz

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Last week we looked at the smart grid — essentially, a modernization of the transmission and distribution aspects of the electrical grid. This week we’re focusing upon tracking energy usage, since the first step to cutting down on our power consumption is being able to measure it. Smart meters installed as part of smart grid projects will make it extra-easy to monitor home energy use — and while there are numerous smart grid-linked energy monitoring devices coming out soon, there are also are plenty of ways to keep track of your power consumption with an old-fashioned meter.

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Before getting into individual products, it’s important to have a handle on how home energy use is measured. Electric energy and natural gas consumption are measured in kilowatt-hours (power in kilowatts multiplied by time). The price of individual kWh varies depending on the time of day, but the devices below can help you estimate your power consumption costs.

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One of our favorite energy-monitoring devices is P3’s Kill-a-Watt . It’s cheap ($20), and simple to use — just connect any electronic device to the Kill-a-Watt outlet and find out exactly how much power it’s consuming by the kWh. The Kill-a-Watt also lets you calculate energy expenses by the day, week, month and year, and they can even be rigged to tweet your power usage!

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At $145, the Energy Detective requires a bit more of an investment than the Kill-a-Watt, but it’s also a more complex system. The Energy Detective consists of a Measuring Transmitting Unit that taps into your circuit breaker, a pair of Current Transformers that are clamped around power cables, and a Receiving Unit Display that plugs into a wall outlet and displays real-time power use by the kWh–much like the Kill-a-Watt system. Unlike the Kill-a-Watt, however, the Energy Detective displays energy information for the whole house.

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Perhaps the most elegant power-monitoring device is Wattson, a $280 contraption that consists of a sensor hooked up to power cables along with a wireless receiver. A readout on top of the box shows power usage in either kWh or cash spent, but the device’s color-changing ability makes it easy to gauge your energy use from across the room. When power consumption is low, the box glows blue. When energy use is high, the box glows red, and if consumption is average, Wattson glows purple. It’s a simple, attractive way to keep an eye on energy.

Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/05/07/energy-101-how-to-monitor-your-energy/#more-27818
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Postod bigvlada » Ned Maj 17, 2009 7:54 am

Energy 101 INTERVIEW: IBM’s Drew Clark on Future Smart Meters
by Ariel Schwartz

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In last week’s Energy 101 column, we looked at some of the home energy monitoring devices currently available and explored the ways that they can help us live more efficient, eco-conscious lives. But with smart grid technologies rapidly approaching, a new group of energy-tracking devices is emerging. We had the chance to speak with Drew Clark, Director of Strategy for IBM’s Venture Capital Group, about what the future holds for smart meter technology.

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What kind of smart grid monitoring devices do you see on the horizon?

Drew: We’re seeing a new generation of start-up devices that will connect to utilities. We thought [energy monitoring devices] would have a telco or cable model originally–in other words, the utility would send you a monitoring device. But we’re seeing start-ups launching these things independent of utilities. The utilities aren’t the gating factor we thought they might be.

What are some of your favorite energy monitoring devices?

Drew: It’s too early to pick any winners, but we just met with one company called Energy Hub. They’re making a device to help consumers manage the electrical energy needs in their homes–appliances and large energy loads like hot water heaters. They plan on selling it in a piece-like fashion, with one module to start and additional devices available. Another company called Ecobee told me that they’re trying to model Apple’s iPhone — they want to be a platform. So they’ll open up their interface in an application store-like environment. They want to share the R&D burden across thousands of developers and at the same time provide a web-based marketplace where consumers can pick and choose.

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Where does IBM fit into this?

Drew: IBM sees itself as the utility’s main partner in helping them understand this new market — to engage and integrate with these devices. We’re focused on advanced analytics and visualization. If there are millions of these devices around, how will utilities be able to make sense of data, visualize data? We architect and deliver solutions to utilities to create a 2-way dialogue. Pricing signals and data are coming one way, demand and consumer data are coming the other way.

When will we see a large-scale rollout of smart meters and energy monitoring devices?

Drew: That’s the four billion dollar question. What effect will the stimulus have on the deployment of these things? I don’t think anyone knows. Our hope is that in the next five to 10 years the majority of houses will be wired up. But it could take a decade. That said, IBM is rolling these things out weekly. All over the world, we’re installing smart meters and smart grid equipment. With the stimulus, we’re going to see an acceleration in the deployment of these networks.

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Izvor: Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/05/14/energy-101-interview-ibms-drew-clark-on-future-smart-meters/#more-29072
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Postod MindWind » Čet Jun 18, 2009 1:45 am

Hm, ovo mi deluje kao najprigodnija tema za ovu iznenađujuću priču
U poslednje vreme, vesti o Srbiji na EuroNewsu su prilično pozitivne. Pa evo i jedne reportaže iz sekcije Hi Tech

ceo izveštaj sa prilogom je na euronews sajtu (ne znam kako da izvučem video sa ove strane)

Eco friendly building in Serbia

Milenko Milenkovic, a Serbian engineer and inventor, has unveiled his eco-friendly house, 40 kilometers south of Belgrade.

The dome-shaped construction 18 .5 metres in diameter and provides 220 square metres of living space. It also around 80% more energy-efficient than a conventional house of the same size.

A section of the roof has grass growing on it to make it even more environmentally friendly. The house features two layers of walls, so that air can circulate between the two; improving insulation both from heat and cold.

The house has an indoor swimming pool and even an indoor garden and Milenkovic says that the savings in electrictiy mean that his investment will have paid for itself in just four years.

But this hosue is only the beginning. Milenkovic’s next project is three times bigger and he says energy costs for heating and cooling will be 50% lower than those of a conventional building.

__

Ako sam promašio temu, nek neko od moderatora premesti negde :)
DYSLEXICS UNTIE!
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Postod vucko » Pon Jul 13, 2009 9:10 pm

U Evropskoj uniji do 2012 ukidaju prodaju obicnih sijalica,evo dokumenta sa odlukom o tome i podacima o ostalima vrstama sijalica halogenim i fluoroscentnim.

http://ec.europa.eu/energy/efficiency/ecodesign/doc/committee/2008_12_08_technical_briefing_household_lamps.pdf

Evo najzanimljivih delova.Koliko sam video kod nas samo pored obicnih se prodaju obicne i ove floroscentne.Sta mislite o ovome?Da li da "coravimo" uz floroscentne i stedimo struju ili da manje stedimo ali i sacuvamo vid sa halogenim punjenim ksenonom?

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Poslednja izmena od vucko u Pon Jul 13, 2009 9:13 pm, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
"Kad će taj metro? Mnogi Beograđani su već odavno pod zemljom i čekaju."
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Postod MindWind » Uto Jul 14, 2009 2:53 am

Realne mane CFL sijalica su nemogućnost podešavanja jačine svetla, sporo paljenje, veličina i to što moraju da imaju vazduh... Inače od njih sigurno nećeš da oslepiš, nisu to kao cevaste neonke. Ja lično više volim tzv "belo" (mada je u suštini žuto) svetlo, a postoji i "ljubičasto" (koje jeste belo, mada je sijalica par trenutaka posle gašenja zelena). Pre 5 godina sam polako počeo da prelazim na CFL, i do sada su samo najstarije dve crkle.

Inače, sad ima i LED sijalica, koje su oko 600-800 dinara - ne greju uopšte, troše 0,75W, ali kako su mi rekli ima zrakasto i isuviše slabo svetlo...
DYSLEXICS UNTIE!
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Postod vucko » Uto Jul 14, 2009 10:08 am

Kako mislis moraju da imaju vazduh?
Primetio sam da CFL ne odasilju dovoljno svetlosti i to mi izuzetno smeta,konstantno mi raste dioptrija pa pretpostavljam da bi ovo jos bilo gore po moje oci.
Zasto nema ovih halogenih punjenih ksenonom,izgledaju kao dobro medjuresenje?
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Postod hazard » Uto Jul 14, 2009 10:35 am

CFL ne odasilju dovoljno svetlosti? Kupi jacu sijalicu. CFL od oko 30W je kao obicna sijalica od 100W, CFL od 15W je slicno obicnoj od recimo 60W, a imas i slabije CFL od oko 7W - dakle sve zavisi sta si kupio.

Meni se licno "belo" (ja ga zovem "cisto") svetlo CFLa svidja mnogo vise nego "zuto" (ja ga zovem "prljavo") svetlo obicne sijalice. Sad, kod mene u kuci su skoro samo CFL sijalice vec godinama...stvar navike...
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Postod vucko » Uto Jul 14, 2009 10:58 am

Hm...nisam znao da ima CFL od 30w,najjace videh od 20w sto je ekvivalentno obicnoj od 100w.
Ne idem po mega/hiper marketima pa pretpostavljam da sigurno imaju tamo.Probacu,bas me zanima kakve su
Poslednja izmena od vucko u Uto Jul 14, 2009 11:00 am, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
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Postod Nikola » Čet Jul 16, 2009 4:01 pm

hazard napisao:Meni se licno "belo" (ja ga zovem "cisto") svetlo CFLa svidja mnogo vise nego "zuto" (ja ga zovem "prljavo") svetlo obicne sijalice. Sad, kod mene u kuci su skoro samo CFL sijalice vec godinama...stvar navike...

Prve stedljive koje sam kupio su davale zutu svetlost. Nekako su mi bile zuce neko obicne sijalice. Vremenom sam se navikao ali mi se nikad nisu bas dopadale. Posle sam poceo da kupujem ove sto daju belu svetlosti i u pocetku mi je bilo neobicno, ali sam se sad navikao do mere da cak i preferiram pre njih nego obicne. Mozda mi je ipak najbolje i naprirodnije svetlo u jednoj sobi u kojoj imam jednu belu i jednu zutu sijalicu i kad rade zajedno.

P.S. Ove bele mi se brze "pale" od zutih. Ne znam zasto.
Poslednja izmena od Nikola u Čet Jul 16, 2009 4:02 pm, izmenjeno 1 put ukupno.
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Postod bigvlada » Sub Avg 29, 2009 9:11 am

IS IT GREEN?: The Compact Fluorescent Light
by Alexandra Kain

Slika

Shortly after Al Gore debuted An Inconvenient Truth the general public started giving a damn about climate change — at least superficially. And in a massive wave of effort to show off our new enviro-consciousness, every apartment, townhouse and megamansion from Norway to New Zealand swapped their incandescent light bulbs for more energy efficient CFLs, or compact fluorescent lamps. Watt for watt, there’s no question whether or not CFLs save energy as compared to their predecessors. But with the concerns of toxic mercury and the recent developments in LED technology, CFLs may not be the smartest choice for long-term sustainability. Read on for our in-depth report!

Slika

First, the case for CFLs: Compact fluorescent light bulbs use around 75% less energy and last 10 times as long as incandescent bulbs. The fact that CFLs can last up to ten times longer is a huge leap in the reduction of packaging and shipping. These benefits have led plenty of countries including Australia and Ireland to ban incandescents altogether. Retailers around the world have jumped on board, but when places like Wal-Mart started hocking CFLs like candy before Halloween they didn’t warn customers about mercury poisoning.

Mercury from energy production and broken CFL bulbs seeps into soil and water and usually ends up in the bodies of fish. Animals or people who then eat those fish take on their toxicity, which can cause severe disabilities from stunted neurological development. It has also been speculated that high mercury rates can cause cancer, though we’ll need a few more years of increasing exposure to know for sure.

CFL Recycling Challenge on Lighter Footstep

For these reasons many governments and retailers are offing CFL recycling programs that safely handle the mercury instead of letting it build up in landfills. But just because recycling systems are in place doesn’t mean people use them. Most of our dumps are filled with recyclable or reusable items in the first place. I find it very unlikely that a person who throws away an empty water bottle will suddenly decide to drive to Home Depot to recycle an old CFL. People are lazy — and thats something you can count on!

Aside from the problems associated with mercury and recycling it seems as if the push for CFLs came at a time when we needed a quick fix–not a long term solution. The US Government continues to mandate ethanol fuel production, despite the fact that most environmentalists and scientists agree its not going to solve our climate problem. Like ethanol, CFLs are a welcomed step in the right direction. But before throwing everyone on the bandwagon it’s important to assess the potential harm and keep an eye on more effective emerging technologies.

Slika

In this case, there are at least a few more efficient, mercury-free lighting alternatives slowly creeping into the market. OLEDs (organic light emitting diodes), for example, use a fraction of the energy that CFLs do, are more flexible in application, less prone to breaking, and mercury-free. Young designers, scientists and engineers are regularly coming up with better ways to light our lives and they need all the support they can get. Afterall, our planet is on the line.
Is It Green?

Definitely. A CFL will beat an incandescent bulb any day of the week. But we can’t make this a competition between the CFL and its predecessors. The competition must move forward. There are more efficient solutions available. And we do have the technology AND responsibility to topple the CFL with a light that is more energy efficient, non-toxic, and easier to recycle. You may have won the battle, CFL; but you will not win the war!

Slika


Izvor:Inhabitat
http://www.inhabitat.com/2009/07/29/is-it-green-the-compact-fluorescent-lamp/
The world is not based on reality but on the perception of reality. The problem is that for most, illusion is the reality...

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